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关不掉的APP——永不停止的应用程序

 【TechWeb报道】智能手机在国内有多热?一个数字能让你吓一跳:根据易观智库公布的数据,仅2011年第1季度,中国国内智能手机的销售总量已经达到1991万部。

  丰富的应用、好玩的游戏让所有智能机达人大呼过瘾的时候,你是否会发现一些奇怪的现象。

  为什么某天下午,你的智能机一反常态的消耗了大半电量,而你并没太多使用?

  为什么有些应用你明明已经把它们关闭了,过一会,它们又神不知鬼不觉地冒出来?

  ……

  相信我们,这绝非你的不小心。

 

  在你疯狂下载的大量应用里一定存在着大量关不掉APP。(TechWeb配图)

  事实上,我们有理由相信,在你疯狂下载的大量应用里一定存在着大量关不掉的,“永不消失的”APP。如果有心,只要装一款流量监控软件,你能看到它们会大量“谋杀”你的流量与电池电量。

  但是,但是这依然只是表象,想想你手机中最宝贵的通讯录、想想你手机里保存公司机密、想想你的那些私人照片和视频……如果这些程序盯上的是你手机里的这些秘密?那么后果,我简直不敢想象。

  好吧,请关注TechWeb推出《关不掉的APP》系列报道,我们会通过调查告诉你一个真实的APP世界,告诉你那些所谓的IT精英们正在干着什么样的勾当。

  注:APP是应用程序application program的简称,由于iPhone智能手机的流行,现在的APP多指第三方智能手机的应用程序。

  永不消失的APP

  小菲是一名Android手机用户。让她困惑的是,每次手机刚开机,在正在运行的应用程序中,总会有几款软件。分别点击停止后,不过十几分钟的时间,又相继自动启动了。

  “后台进程杀不死,关闭后又偷偷启动,电池吃不消,又耗费流量。这种APP完全不考虑用户感受!于是直接卸载了。”小菲说。

  一名叫做刘建宇的网友在微博上写道:“是谁在谋杀你的电池?前台推出软件,后台再次停止软件进程。但过一会你再看任务管理器,你就会发现,不少软件就自己又启动了。是安卓系统问题?还是软件的另类流氓习惯?”

  经过大量测试比较,TechWeb总结了国内主要的APP的关闭情况,大致分为三种情况

  1. 多数APP点击两次退回可以关闭,算是最好的;

  2. 有些退出后关不掉,但用专门的管理软件可以关掉,次之;

  3. 有些是拿管理工具也关不掉的,在后台悄悄运行,极其恶劣。

  三者大致比例是6:3:1。一位业内资深人士向TechWeb透露,他们做过一些小范围的统计,如果每人安装20款APP,一般会有3-4款APP在后台无法关闭。相比较,苹果的iOS系统则相对安全,程序退出后(用户按home键后),程序最多有10分钟进行未完成的任务,到时程序会被系统冻结、停止执行。

  在这位业内人士看来,Android平台上的 APP关不掉,已经是业内人所共知的“潜规则”。

  被盯上的Android后门

  为此,TechWeb特别联系上了身在德国的资深APP开发者GillBates,他向TechWeb解释了这背后的原因。以下为GillBates的分析:

  这和Android系统的特性有很大的关系。众所周知,Android系统以开放而著称,这也是他吸引众多开发者的重要原因。在它提供给开发者的众多便利中,其中有一条:系统允许第三方开发者开发系统级的程序驻留后台。这本来是为程序开发者提供方便的措施,但是在国内却被一些人盯上了。

  回来再说应用程序的开发。作为开发者在设计程序的时候,一般在执行完任务会尽可能关闭或挂起自己。

  正因为Android系统预留了上述“后门”,一些别有用心的人就会选择让程序走动驻留后台,在被关掉后自动重启。有些甚至无法卸载,成为永不停止的应用程序。

  开发者GillBates向TechWeb介绍,关不掉的APP一般分为三类:

  第一类:通讯聊天类。这类应用主要为了保证正常服务,方便和服务器保持通讯。

  第二类:应用市场类。这类应用主要是在后台监控用户设备上的程序的安装卸载情况。部分程序会上传这部分数据,从而分析用户的应用喜好,进行下一步的推荐。

  第三类:部分LBS应用。该类程序会监控用户的地理位置信息,从而实现移动平台上广告的精确投放。

  除了关闭后自动启动,还存在一些应用程序,在运行时,正常的进程管理器中却无法看到,甚至同时在程序中运行其他程序。

  关不掉,它又能干吗?

  你一定还在好奇,这些APP留在后台能干什么呢,只是赚我的流量费吗,那是中国移动该操心的事啊?

  按照GillBates的介绍,我们又收集了国内主流的APP做了调查,并采访众多业内资深人士,总结出了关不掉的APP的三种目的,分别是保证正常服务,统计用户行为,盗取流量和数据。

  第一种,为了保证正常服务。开发者GillBates表示,通信类的APP启动后可在后台运行,以方便和服务器保持通讯,实现用户随时可收发消息的功能。这类APP会在后台定时发送一个数据包到服务器查询状态,询问到服务器,是否有新消息或其他问题。

  也就是说,手机与服务器之间会建立网络连接,可以将消息从服务器推送到手机上,手机也可以把需要的东西发到服务器。用户选择关闭时,中断了手机和服务器的连接。为了使手机和服务器保持通信,一些应用会让自身的守护进程时刻监测自身的运行状态,一旦进程被终止,自动重启。

  第二种,为了统计一些用户行为,便于产品改进以及个性化推送。例如,一些应用商店和LBS类的应用,监控用户的喜好或地理位置信息,进行有效应用、信息或广告推送。

  第三种,恶意行为,偷跑大量流量,或是监听手机的信息,读取联系人、短信、通话记录等隐私,这背后往往有黑色利益链条。

  而这样的程序必然给用户带来严重的后果:耗电、耗流量、占用系统资源、安全问题。

  第一, 耗费流量与电量。开发者Flylion表示,APP一直在后台运行,与服务器交互,必然会产生流量,耗费电量。有些驻留后台的APP甚至通过不断访问网络走流量。

  第二, 占用内存。对于用户来说,在后台运行的APP占用内存,使得手机使用速度放慢,甚至将内存挤死,造成死机,影响访问其他应用。

  第三, 安全问题。某些驻留后台的应用,会随时记录用户使用情况,并存在用户不了解的情况下主动上传手机信息的可能。

  请把选择权交给用户

  调查让我们触目惊心,但是当我们想投诉的时候却发现这样的问题处于法律的真空,很难找到合适的法律法规进行管理。

  飞象网CEO项立刚对TechWeb表示:“现在还没有办法把关不掉的应用定义为流氓软件,但这样的应用多了,肯定不是好事。用户是有选择权的,不管任何软件,用户都可以选择把它关掉。应该把选择权还给用户。”

  项立刚称,国内移动互联网刚刚开始,现在还没有一套管理办法。他认为,APP应用开发应该形成一个管理模式,形成共同的规则。

  上海大邦律师事务所知识产权律师游云庭则认为这一行为已经严重侵犯消费者合法权益。他对TechWeb表示,当前移动互联网的法律还不是很健全。但根据消费者权益保护法,APP无法关闭,一是侵犯消费者合法权益,二是对竞争对手构成了不正当竞争,三是如果未经用户允许盗取隐私、读取通讯录,则侵犯了用户隐私权。如果滥用这些隐私,还可能构成犯罪。

  游云庭认为,当前移动互联网正在复制PC互联网竞争的情况,呼吁有关部门针对移动互联网尽快立法,给出竞争规则。

  只有规矩才能成方圆,只有合理的监管才能让正在蓬勃发展的无线互联网产业健康成长,一味追求利益而违背消费者意愿必将给整个行业带来不利。

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238条评论 to 关不掉的APP——永不停止的应用程序

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  16. empossime on 10月 12th, 2012

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